Technical definitions from the MiQ Standard


This section covers all the definitions for technical terms that feature in the MiQ Standard for assessing the methane emissions performance of natural gas production.

Audit The process of assessing, validating (Ex-Ante), and verifying (Ex-Post) the operations of a Producer within a Facility against the requirements in this Standard.
Auditor A Certification Body is made up of pre-qualified Auditors possessing the experience, knowledge, and expertise necessary to provide Auditing services, both offsite and onsite, to determine if a Facility meets the requirements of the Standard.
Certificate Issuing Body The Certificate Issuing Body is responsible for registering each Facility and Account Holder in a Registry, issuing MiQ Certificates, and enabling and registering transfers as well as Retirement and Expiry of MiQ Certificates.
Certificate Grade The grade associated with a MiQ Certificate, as determined by the Certificate Issuing Body and indicated in the Registry, based on the recommendation of a Certification Body in its Ex-Ante Audit Report.
Certification Body An organisation made up of Auditors that carry out site and company Audits to determine if a Facility meets the requirements of the Standard. Multiple Certification Bodies may Audit against this Standard.
Certified Production Period The period (maximum 12 months) during which the certification applies to the Facility that passes assessment through the Ex-Ante Validation stage until the Ex-Post Verification stage. Gas produced during this period is considered Certified Production.
Company Practices Policies and procedures a Producer implements to ensure it is effectively managing Methane Emissions for the Facility.
Emission Factor A factor or ratio for converting an activity measure (e.g. number of times a controller actuates) into an estimate of the quantity of Methane Emissions associated with that activity, usually expressed in emissions per activity unit and derived from representative measurement campaigns.
Emission Source A physical equipment or component unit or process that releases methane into the atmosphere.
Ex-Ante Validation The systematic, independent, and documented assessment by the Auditor before (Ex-Ante) the intended Certified Production Period, validating the information reported by the Producer against this Standard.
Ex-Post Verification The systematic, independent, and documented assessment by the Auditor after (Ex-Post) the Certified Production Period, verifying the actual operations within this period against the results of the Ex-Ante Validation according to this Standard.
Facility Onshore:

“All natural gas equipment on a single well-pad or associated with a single well-pad that are under common ownership or common control including leased, rented, or contracted activities by an onshore natural gas production owner or operator and that are located in a single Basin. Where a person or entity owns or operates more than one well in a Basin, then all onshore natural gas production equipment associated with all wells that the person or entity owns or operates in the Basin would be considered one Facility” (consistent with the EPA GHGRP definition). The sum of all Production Facilities owned or operated by a single company in a Basin.


A single offshore platform operated by a Producer where natural gas production takes place. This platform can, but does not always, include connected subsea development(s) and processing. For the purposes of the offshore Standard, Facility is used interchangeably with Production platform.

Methane Intensity A ratio of Methane Emissions relative to natural gas throughput. This Standard uses the NGSI Protocol definition, which calculates Methane Intensity at a Facility level, using Methane Emissions associated with natural gas in the numerator and Produced Gas in terms of methane content in the denominator to calculate a unitless ratio, communicated as a percentage. It takes into account natural gas Production Throughput relative to crude and condensate throughput, and only accounts for Methane Emissions that are attributable to the production of natural gas (according to relative energy content).

In an offshore context, Methane Intensity is calculated using an adapted version of the NGSI Protocol definition, and includes emissions from both the production and processing (separation) of gas that occurs offshore.

MiQ Certificate A certificate that represents the collection of attributes describing a specific Facility if the minimum requirements of this Standard are met. A single MiQ Certificate is assigned to one unit (1 MWh) of natural gas, produced at the Facility.
Monitoring Technology Deployment Deployment of adequate technologies to detect and/or measure Methane Emissions from potential Emission Sources. Monitoring technology determines the presence of an Emissions Source. Monitoring technology must be deployed under a monitoring programme, which describes the method, or combination of methods, to be used for each Facility, including survey frequency, repair response, and reporting standards.
Non-Compliance Event Any event or circumstance during the Certified Production Period causing a deviation from the Ex-Ante Validated Standard elements that would make a Facility’s Verified Grade lower than its Certificate Grade, as evaluated by the Certification Body.
Producer The owner and operator of a Facility, responsible for operating a well or wells that recover and bring natural gas to the surface, whether or not in conjunction with oil and/or natural gas liquids.
Proof of Capacity Demonstration of the Facility’s Production Throughput for the Certified Production Period, forecasted through production modelling and historic data for Ex-Ante Validation and confirmed through Revenue Grade Metering or equivalent in the Ex-Post Verification.
Proof of Connection Demonstration that natural gas produced from the Facility is feasibly connected and can reach the nominated delivery point (hub or offtake location).
Registry An information and communication technologies (ICT) system, operated by a Program Holder or by an organisation designated by a Program Holder, that provides administrative management and records of the MiQ Certificates issued under the Standard. The Registry manages the status of each certification record.
Standard Holder The organisation responsible for defining and managing all aspects of the development of the Standard, including managing the processes for making changes to the Standard documents: the main document, subsidiary documents, and procedures documents.
Verified Grade The grade determined by a Certification Body based on an Ex-Post Verification, used to verify the original Certificate Grade and identify any cases of Non-Compliance. This Verified Grade does not replace the Certificate Grade in the Registry, but rather is indicated separately.